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Monthly Archives: October 2018

Theory of Immittance Audiometry

Immitance in measured in compliance, compliance is the movement of the tympanic membrane. This is done by stimulating the ear by a pure tone and a consistent intensity. Then the sound pressure level is measured. This measurement is then used to determine the impedance (how well the energy flows though the system) of the middle ear and the tympanic membrane and everything that is attached to it. The immittance of the ear is derived from a few sources of mechanical and acoustical stiffness, mass and resistance. The stiffness component comes from the volumes of air in the outer ear and middle ear spaces, the tympanic membrane, the tendons and ligaments of the ossicles. The mass come from the ossicles, the ear drum and the perilymph. The resistance is introduced by the perilymph. The impedance of an object is dependent of frequency. The formula for determining impedance is the square root of R2 + (2p f M – S / 2p f )2 when R= Resistance, M = Mass, S = Stiffness, f = frequency.

A few things to keep in mind are that mass is an important factor for high frequencies and stiffness in the important factor in low frequencies for the response of the system. Resistance is mainly determined by the ligaments that attach to the ossicles and the mass is determined by the weight of the ossicles and the tympanic membrane. Stiffness is determined primarily by the pressure the fluid from the cochlea on the footplate of the stapes.

Tympanometry and Acostic Reflex fall under the category of immittance audiometry. Tympanometry is the term for evaluating the movement of the tympanic membrane. Typically this is a graphical display of the change in compliance of the tympanic membrane as the ear canal pressure is varied from negative to positive. As pressure adjust from zero to its maximum negative or its most positive position impedance increases. The point in the graph where the pressure in the ear canal is equal to the pressure in the middle ear cavity impedance is at its minimum value, in other words, compliance is at its highest value. The graphical display is called a Tympanogram can have several types. In clinical use these graphs are divided into different Jerger types in order to diagnose. A Type A tympanogram is characterized by pressure that is + 50mm H20. This is classified as normal. The Type B tympanogram is typified by no peak and seams flat. This is frequently in serous or chronic otitis media. The Type C tympanogram is distinguished by a peak indicating negative pressure in the middle ear. This is usually due to Eustachian tube dysfunction. An abnormal typanogram can be determined if it has too many peaks or if it is too wide.

An acoustic reflex is what happens when a sufficiently intense sound (70 dB HL) is presented to either ear and it results in the contraction of the stapedius muscle in both ears. This reflexive muscle contraction stiffens the conductive mechanism via the stapedius tendon, and changes the ear’s immitance. The acoustic reflux is easily measure because the immitance change is picked up by the probe top and displayed on the immitance device meter. How this works is that the afferent nerve from an ear goes to the ipsilateral ventral cochlear nucleus. Neurons then go to the superior olivary complexes on both sides of the brainstem. Both superior olivary complexes on send signals to the facial nerve nuclei on their own sides. And then finally the efferent motor legs of the acoustic reflex involve the right and left facial nerves, which direct the stapedius muscles to contract in both ears.

The results of the acoustic reflux are complicated but once understood become simple. A pathological ear is defined as the ear with a problem in it. This could be a dead cochlea or a conductive or sensory-neural hearing loss. If an ear is normal the stapedius muscle will contract in both ears. It the stimulus is presented to the pathological ear and the ear just had a conductive hearing loss the reflux will show up after the conductive hearing loss has been overcome and the ear has received 70 dB HL. Then the reflux will show in both ears. In a dead cochlea, the stimulus will never cause the reflux to occur. In a sensory hearing loss that is profound the reflex will not be found in the pathological ear. Likewise in residual hearing, the reflux will be absent in the pathological ear. These results are better seen in the slides. It is very difficult to explain them in words.


Here are some interesting facts about watercress. The father of medicine Hippocrates, who coined the phrase, let your food be your medicine, used watercress as a medicinal remedy to treat his patients who suffered from various health conditions. Watercress is a green leafy vegetable that comes from the family of cruciferous vegetables that include certain vision foods such as Cabbage, Kale, Broccoli and Brussels sprouts. This food has been a staple to the diet of Roman soldiers. Furthermore, this leafy vegetable also boast the highest rating among all super foods in terms of its ANDI score. The ANDI score stands for Aggregate Nutrient Density Index. This is actually the gold standard for measuring the nutritional density of food in terms of the Vitamin, mineral, phytonutrient and antioxidant power of various foods. Watercress achieves the highest score for super foods using these nutritional criteria.

Eye Health Benefits of Watercress: the health properties of the watercress vegetable are associated with its Vitamin A and Vitamin E content. Additionally, it consists of the vision promoting nutrients Lutein, Zeaxanthin as well as Beta carotene. Collectively, these various nutrients are known to support the proper maintenance of eye health, improve poor eyesight, increase night vision, and more importantly, they provide nutritional content rich in antioxidants. These antioxidants help to protect the eyes from oxidative damage and the free radical activity of rogue cells that cause the breakdown for health cells in the eyes. Therefore, watercress is good food for the eyes if you are concerned about protecting aging eyes from age related eye diseases such as macular degeneration and cataracts.


Some of the health benefits of this vision food include improved immunity, cancer prevention and thyroid support. According to the National Institute of cancer watercress possesses anticancer properties known as Glucosinolates in addition to another anticancer compound called indole 3 carbinol. These anticancer properties induce the death of cancer cells. They are also antibacterial and inhibit the formation of cancer tumors. This super food consists of nutrients that are vital in keeping your bones healthy and strong such as Calcium and Vitamin K. As a matter of fact, just one cup of watercress provides you with about 106% of your daily recommended allowance for Vitamin K. Additionally; studies have shown that consuming cruciferous vegetables on a regular basis such as Broccoli, Kale, Cabbage and watercress is beneficial in reducing unhealthy LDL levels of cholesterol. This is a factor that reduces the risks for arteriosclerosis and heart disease.


Eye Health Benefits: This vision food includes the carotenoids Lutein and Zeaxanthin which are essential in improving vision health. Regular consumption of this vision food increases eye health and reduces the risks for eye diseases such as macular degeneration and cataracts. Honeydew is also rich in Vitamins C and Vitamins A; 2 essential antioxidants that benefits eye health.

Weight Loss Benefits: The honeydew is low in calories and it is also a fat free food. Additionally, it is low in sodium and possesses a low content in natural sugars. It is also considered to be a cholesterol free food. These various qualities work together collectively in making it an ideal food for weight loss. It possesses dietary fiber which gives you a full feeling. This reduces appetite cravings thereby contributing to weight loss.

Cancer Prevention: Its rich Vitamin C content aids in boosting the body’s immune system. Vitamin C is a major antioxidant that functions in the body as a free radical scavenger and fights off rogue cells in the body responsible for causing cell destruction to healthy cell DNA.

Digestive Aid: Its insoluble fiber content is a good digestive aid in terms of improving digestive function and aiding in good elimination and reducing digestive issues and problems.

Heart Health: Honeydew’s Vitamin B content decreases homocysteine levels in the body. Additionally, it consists of the antioxidants A and C that fight free radical damage in the cardiovascular system. This antioxidant protection reduces the buildup of plaque in the artery walls which leads to heart disease. Therefore it benefits heart health by fighting heart disease and preventing strokes.

Honeydew is a refreshing and juicy fruit packed with tons of vitamins and minerals that benefit many different aspects of eye and general health. Regular consumption of this vision food can lead to an improvement in eye, heart, kidney and digestive health. Ultimately, these are good reasons to make the honeydew fruit an essential part of your daily diet regimen.

About Backache and Its Causes

The back comprises of various interconnected structures, and these are our muscles, bones and joints, and also tendons and ligaments. The vertebra is the primary support structure in our spine, and is formed by 24 smaller bones, which are also known as the vertebrae. Towards the lower end of the spine are sacrum and coccyx, wherein the sacrum is attached towards the front to our pelvic bones.

In essence, backache is caused when one or more structures in the back are affected, and these could be bones, cartilage, muscles or even spinal cord.

In human beings, the posture is erect, and it has been created in a way such that we are able to withstand the gravitational force. But as a direct outcome of the erect posture, the back becomes more susceptible to wear and tear, strains or even fractures.

Flexibility in our backs enables mobility, and there are a host of factors which ensure flexibility. These include the structure of joints, muscle elasticity and also the fiber material which comprises the connective tissue, and is made up of collagen, elastin and titin.

In between each adjacent vertebra are the intervertebral or spinal discs, and while these enable flexibility and stability for the backbone, they act as shock absorbers and give strength to joints. The vertebrae are round bones through which the spine threads down, and these may be seen as a protective tunnel for the spine and spinal nerves. As these nerves run down the centre of the spine, they branch out and reach the various body parts.

The collagen fibers works towards ensuring that our body is able to successfully withstand the tension created due to our weight and erect posture. And correspondingly, while the intervertebral discs protect the spine, these keep the spine stable when we undertake any of the strenuous activities that put pressure on the spine, like running, jumping or lifting.

Back ache is most prevalent between the age group of 35 to 55, and the most common causes that lead to the condition are physical labor which involves iterative bending or twisting, lifting, pushing or pulling a load, or even static postures. Backache is very often associated with one’s everyday posture or ergonomics, and it may even be attributed to psychosocial factors, such as mental stress or cognitive dysfunction.

Symptoms of back pain vary from one individual to another. The pain is likely to leave by itself in some time, but it could at times be more severe. One might require specialized medical attention if the pain is severe, persistent or it radiates downs to one’s arms or feet.

Effect of Loud Music on the Ears

The worst thing is tinnitus that generates constant ringing or noise in the nerves that is not related to anything in the environment. It is a malfunction of the hearing mechanism and the main cause is loud noise.

This can be from chain saws; music; drills; machinery; rock concerts; and so on. A friend of mine acquired it from being in the army and the guns he had to use. It is doubtful whether soldiers would be compensated for this condition when it occurs after they leave the service.

People who work with loud noise are risking their hearing and many do not know it. While it is common to have it playing in shops the assistants are unaware of the risk they are taking. Likewise, customers who have to put up with it while shopping are also in danger.

This is a general health hazard and one that governments and the medical profession should be advertising in order to prevent it causing a plague of deafness in the community. Yes! I did say deafness because my brother was in music and is driven crazy with the condition and is now deaf in one ear with reduced hearing in the other.

There is no need to play music at such a volume as to risk ear damage. More publicity should be given to the side-effects and the young especially should have explanations given to them in school so as to be aware of them.

Detox Tea

The detox tea originally consists of pure herbal substances. One cup in the morning to prepare your body for the day and the other in the evening for peaceful sleep.

The core process of any detox course is to clean the foreign particles and toxic elements from the body and to keep your internal organ system clean, which is considered to be a key to a blissful lifestyle. The effect of this process will increase your metabolism and help you lose weight at the end of the day. It can also improve the quality and appearance of your skin, improves your immunity power and boost your mental performance. Unlike other chemical products available in the market, Detox tea works in a right direction to help your body

I am only 25 years old and weighed about 200 pounds about six months ago. I read a lot about several brands of detox tea in one of the magazines and wanted to give it a try for deriving its weight loss benefits. I researched a lot about the different brands of detox teas on the market and decided to pick one to include in my daily diet for losing weight. Not only did I lose weight within the span of three months, but it also boosted up the detoxification process inside my body. Not only, do I feel light from inside now, but also feel more confident than ever before.

Detoxification tea diet claims the following results:

  • Weight loss
  • Boosted metabolism
  • Increased energy level
  • Increased metabolism
  • Concealed appetite

Detox – The process is also known as detoxification. It assists in the removal of the toxic substances from the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver. There are also several other types of detoxification methods that help in the proper functioning of the various organs like kidneys, lungs, liver, and skin. Detoxification includes a special kind of skin cleaning process because our skin is one of our best eliminative organs. Therefore, it is critical to protecting our body skin by considering natural detoxification techniques. For example – If your kidney is damaged, then safeguarding the skin will help the kidneys indirectly, but in a very efficient way.

Pink Eye Remedy With Probiotics

Traditional medical treatment for this eye condition includes eye drops and antihistamines. These traditional recommendations are not necessarily the most effective remedies for this vision condition due to the fact that these treatments contain chemicals and toxins that are not good for the eyes. If you are looking for a natural remedy to effectively treat this eye condition here are some tips and natural remedies that will help you accomplish this goal.

One of the most effective methods of treating pink eye is to use an effective natural remedy that tackles this eye issue from both an internal and external manner. This is due to the fact that treating it externally only with unnatural treatments will only mask the symptoms instead of addressing the immune system deficiencies that cause it to happen in the first place.

An effective natural treatment that is often overlooked that actually prevents this condition are probiotic supplements. Probiotic supplements actually function as an effective internal and external treatment for pink eye. This is due to the fact that they strengthen the body’s immune system. This is accomplished by increasing the body’s production of good bacteria in the digestive tract. This reduces the harmful bacteria in the body that leads to a breakdown in the immune system which contributes to pink eye. If you cure pink eye with medical treatments from an external point of view, only with ointments, and eye drops, it will return once again because you have not taken steps increase the body’s immune system.

If you have kids, natural eye care practitioners recommend children’s probiotic natural supplements which should be taken every day so that the immune system gets a regular boost instead of taking it only when pink eye occurs. This can prevent pink eye from recurring on a regular basis. You may ask the question what does the digestive system have to do with eye health? Actually, both health systems are connected due to the fact that 70 % of the body’s immune system is found in the digestive tract and pink eye is caused as a result of a break down in the body’s immune system. Probiotics increase the body’s immunity thereby correcting the problem. Natural eye care practitioners also recommend consuming lots of foods rich in probiotics such as Yogurt, Kefir and Kombucha Tea.

Teeth Whitening Kits

Find a category that is relevant to cosmetic dentistry and then type in your particular product or products of focus, So here’s the real secret for obtaining a great bargain on ebay, Imagine you are looking for a teeth bleaching toothpaste don’t just type that into the eBay search box, try as many teeth whitening kit connected searches as is reasonable because someone offering merchandise like opalescence tooth bleaching packs or aquafresh teeth bleaching pastes might have more than just one teeth whitening kit item on their merchandise list.

Another secret for finding whitening kits or linked items on eBay is this, you should take note of spelling errors, Just recently I acquired a teeth whitening tray for an amazing rate merely because I used a mass of spelling mistakes when I carried out my initial teeth whitening targeted searches with the eBay search facility. Thousands of teeth whitening kit items are sold on eBay each and every day and a large number of them have been advertised with spelling mistakes, an individual might be auctioning bleaching tooth vouchers or a blue light teeth bleaching kits and leave out one letter which means you may possibly be the only bidder interested in whitening kits and the only person to carry out the winning bid.

Another reason for purchasing whitening kits and cosmetic dentistry products on eBay is due to the fact that a healthy amount of unwanted whitening kits are put there due to the financial state of the person selling, a tooth bleaching wand being sold for 45 percent less than by cosmetic dentistry suppliers might not be as unusual to find than a buyer might think. A teeth whitening kit can sometimes find its way onto the eBay auction site simply because it was acquired in a government liquidation sale, you may sometimes end up buying whole stack of teeth whitening kit accessories and if you are experienced may perhaps sell them on and clear a decent profit to re-invest on some kind of useful teeth whitening kit accessory.

Wholesale priced whitening kits can also be accessed with the aid of ebay, today you may perhaps have been looking for a tooth whitener light via one of the cosmetic dentistry sites and now find that these kinds of goods can also be sourced for less than the recommended retail value. So not only can eBay help you to discover items like buffalo teeth whitener kits or colgate teeth bleaching kits it might also open your eyes to the chances of making cash from re-selling whitening kits.

Decode Back Pain

Periodic flare-ups of lower back or neck pain

Cause: You could suffer from recurrent symptoms in cases where the root cause of the pain is not corrected. This pain could initially start by travelling down the limbs and would sometimes give a tingling sensation that feels like pins and needles in the limb. In some cases you could also feel that the affected limb is weaker and heavier than the unaffected one.

Treatment: Correcting your posture, avoid staying in one posture for a long time, taking frequent breaks, spinal muscle strengthening

If your walking pattern has changed

Cause: This might be a symptom of one of your discs slipping out of your vertebral column. A common indicator of this is when your gait is stooped and crooked (tending to one side), which happens because your spine is unable to bear weight on one side. The severe muscle weakness caused due to increased pressure on the nerves leads to muscle weakness and a condition called foot drop, which makes you drag your feet when you walk. Another reason could be sciatica or obesity.

Treatment: If you are going through severe pain, altered sensation in the legs, motor weakness, difficulty in walking with or without back pain then you must visit your doctor.

If you have headache and dizziness

Cause: As people over the globe have become increasingly dependent on electronic gadgets, back pain has become a common problem. Habits like pinning the phone between your shoulder and ear while you multitask is an instinctive move and it puts a lot of pressure on your neck. Poor posture especially when who bend your head forward to use your phone leads to the degeneration of the upper cervical spine – both these are the most common causes for mechanical headache and dizziness. Apart from that dizziness could also be due to various other conditions like benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (disorder arising in the inner ear), low blood pressure etc.

Treatment: Visiting a physical therapist is a must if you get headaches and dizziness to find out whether it is mechanical or non-mechanical.

Alcohol Affects the Aging Process

  • Skin dehydration: Alcohol dehydrates the body. This is the reason why a person who consumes alcohol in excess has circles around his or her eyes and a pale complexion on the following day. Although drinking in moderate quantity does not damage the skin drastically, a regular intake of alcohol can significantly damage the skin such as cause premature wrinkles that can’t be cured. An excessive consumption of alcohol depletes vitamin A in the body and widens the tiny blood vessels that are closest to the outer layer of the skin. This increases the risk of permanent broken capillaries on the face.
  • Tooth decay: Alcohol is a major cause of tooth decay and various gum diseases. It has been seen that vomiting due to heavy drinking can be dangerous to the teeth as the gastric acid destroys the enamel, which, in turn, exposes the teeth to external irritants. This increases the risk of cavities and permanent stains on the teeth, thus, speeding up the aging process.
  • Liver damage: Drinking alcohol on a regular basis can also have long-lasting effects on the liver, which affects the body’s ability to process toxins. It can cause hepatitis and cirrhosis, which, in turn, may lead to deadly diseases such as jaundice and HIV, which can prove fatal. In fact, the damage caused to the liver is sure to speed up one’s aging process.
  • Increased stress: Stress, anxiety and depression are some common factors that can speed up the aging process. When a person is addicted to alcohol, he or she tends to worry a lot about financial constraints that might restrict their ability to buy alcohol. In case, a person is a high-functioning alcoholic, he or she has to deal with the fear and stress of being caught. High levels of stress, over a prolonged period, can speed up the aging process by limiting the DNA strands that may lead to chronic diseases and premature death.
  • Altered eating behavior: When a person is dependent on alcohol, he or she usually develops bad eating habits and is, instead, always thinking about how to obtain alcohol. This affects his or her eating patterns, which, in turn, leads to malnutrition. This inhibits the bodies ability to heal wounds and injuries. This is because unhealthy eating can lead to depletion of essential vitamins and nutrients in the body such as, vitamin A and C. This could lead to premature aging. Other effects of alcohol abuse are weight loss due to malnutrition, which can result in hair loss, a decrease in bone density, ulcers and reduced muscle mass.